Instructions to Authors

Papers are published with the understanding that they have not been and, will not be published elsewhere. The responsibility for the preparation of a paper according to the layout and style of the journal lies with the author(s). The research papers not according to the format of the journal will not be accepted. It should be concise yet informative. It should get the attention of a potential reader while scanning a journal or a list of titles. Title of the paper is in capitals. Author names are in lower case with initial capitals and their complete postal addresses in italics including e-mail and telephone No. Main section headings (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Acknowledgement(s), References) are printed in capitals throughout and placed by the left margin. All manuscripts must have a short title, up to six key words and an abstract (without writing the heading “Abstract” on it). The abstract should consist of no more than 200 words, be complete in itself and understandable without reference to the paper. It will be printed at the beginning of the paper in one continuous paragraph.

Introduction: State the purpose, give only strictly pertinent references and do not review the subject extensively.

Materials and Methods: These should be concise but allow confirmation of observations and repetition of the study.

Results: Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures. Do not repeat in the text all the data given in the tables and figures emphasize or summarize only important observations.

Discussion: Summarize the findings without repeating in detail the data in results section. Relate your observations to important relevant studies; point out the implications of the results and their limitations.

References: All the references included in the text should be listed in the section “References”. Text citations should quote the surnames of the authors in one of the two ways: With the year in parentheses: “Baqar (997) has shown…….”. With the name and year in parentheses: “According to recent findings (Baqar, 1997)…….”. Multiple references should be as follows: Baqar et al., 1997 and 1998; Baqar et al., 1997a and b. References are listed alphabetically by surname. Secondly, use chronological order for papers with identical authorship. The sequence of names of authors (invert name of first author only), year of publication, title {lower case letters except for books, proceedings of international seminars/workshops and important research reports where capitals are used for first letters of various words), abbreviated name of periodicals, volume and number of first and last pages of the article. All reference entries must be cited in the body of the paper. Do not include unpublished material, except theses, in the references. Some example references are:

Article in journal, magazine and serial publication Iqrar, M., M. Ismat, R.H. Qureshi, S. Nawaz and I.A. Mehmood. 1994. Paddy yield affected by planting techniques in a salt-affected soil. J. Glob. Inn. Agri. Sci., 31:401-405.

Books (including bulletins, reports, multivolume works, series) Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.

Chapter in a book Wiseman, J. 1990. Variability in the nutritive value of fats and non-ruminants. p. 232-234. In: J. Wiseman and J.A. Cole (ed.). Feedstuffs evaluation. Butterworths, London.

Conference, symposium or workshop proceedings Muhammad, S. and A. Ghafoor. 1986. Reclamation of two saline-sodic soil series through subsoiling and gypsum application using marginal water for leaching. p. 221-223. In: R. Ahmad and A.S. Pietro (ed.) Prospects for biosaline research. Proc. US-Pak. Biosaline Res. Workshop. 22-26 Sept. 1985. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Dissertation or thesis Kirkegaard, J.A. 1990. Effect of compaction on the growth of pigeon pea on clay soils. Ph. D diss., Dept. Soil Sci., Univ. Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Software and websites National Agricultural Statistics Service. 1997. Crops county data. (Available online with updates at http://usda.mannlib.comell.edu/data-sets/crops/9X100).

Organization/ Govt. department documents Ministry of Finance. 2009. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2008-09. Finance and Economic Affairs Division, Ministry of Finance, Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abbreviations and Units: Use of abbreviations should be minimized. Abbreviations are not allowed in the title, running head, or key words. Do not begin a sentence with an abbreviation. Do not abbreviate units of measures that are not preceded by a number (e.g., 8 kg). The international Systems of Units (SI) and metric units should be used. In decimals, use the decimal point, not the comma.

Tables and Illustrations: Number of tables and figures consecutively with Arabic numerals following their order in the text. Indicate the approximate location desired in the text. Give due regard to the proportions of the printed page. Do not put a period at the end of the table title. The tables and figures should be as simple and as few as possible. The same material should not be presented in tabular and graphical form. Colored plates are unlikely to be accepted unless authors bear the cost. Diagrams should be drawn in black ink on white paper or card, or on stout tracing paper. High-quality (laser) computer-generated original figures are acceptable. Plain drawings for a reduction of 50% or more to a width of (preferably) one or two columns to minimize flaws.

Off Prints: Ten off prints (reprints) are supplied.

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